I. Hammar, Making Enemies: The Logic of Immorality in Ciceronian Oratory

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Isak Hammar, Making Enemies: The Logic of Immorality in Ciceronian Oratory, Lund, 2013.

Éditeur : Lund University
381 pages
ISBN : 978-91-7473-613-7

Texte complet disponible en pdf.

This thesis examines the role played by the topic of immorality in the extant speeches of the Roman politician Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 BCE) and subsequently in the Roman political culture of the late Republic. It traces the portraits of immorality that Cicero made of his political and forensic enemies throughout his political career and his use of immorality as an argument in the Roman Senate, public assembly, and the courts. Inspired by perspectives from New Cultural History as well as New Historcism, the study approaches accusations of depravity and vice in Cicero's oratory as both culturally coherent and politically relevant, and by searching for the cultural logic behind the use of immorality in Roman oratory seeks to demonstrate the link between immorality and Roman politics.
The study shows how Cicero relied on the multifaceted portraits of immorality that he painted of his adversaries and his frequent and varied use of the immorality argument as a means to influence political and forensic decisions. The study furthermore argues that rather than beside the point, claims that rivals were morally depraved were of political importance in ancient Roman oratory and that the immorality argument was employed not only to ridicule or humiliate personal enemies, but was also seen as relevant to political outcomes. Moreover, it is argued that there was an underlying cultural logic on which the orator's arguments relied and that ensured that the topic of immorality made sense to audiences.

Table of Contents - Texte disponible en pdf


Making Sense of Immorality
Approaches to Roman Immorality
The Study of Roman Immorality
Tracing Roman Immorality
A Moral Paradox?

Chapter I: Methodology, Sources, and Scope
Searching for Immorality: Purpose
Finding Immorality: Method
Understanding Immorality: Theory
Reading Cicero: Sources
Defining Immorality: Concepts
Speech as Text: Delivery, Audience, and Publication
Defining a Political Culture
Previous Scholarship
Approaching Rhetoric
Character, Ethos, and Self-fashioning
Immorality in Roman Political Culture

Chapter II: Roman Political Culture
Political Power in the Late Republic
The Roman Republic
The Political System
Power in Practice
Aristocratic Competition
Roman Oratory
Rhetoric at Rome
The Development of Roman Rhetoric
Rhetorical Divisions
Character in Roman Rhetorical Theory
Roman Morality
Summary: Power, Oratory, and Morality in the Late Republic

Chapter III: Defense and Prosecution
—The Early Years (80–69 BCE)
The Case of Sextus Roscius from Ameria
On the Importance of Character
The Immoral Chrysogonus
The Portrayal of Gaius Verres
The Prosecution
The Immoral Charge
No Ordinary Criminal
A Portrait in Greed
The Depravity of Desire
The Immoral Arena
Gaius Verres the Tyrant
Conclusions: Defense and Prosecution

Chapter IV: Republican Politics
—The Consular Years (66–59 BCE)
Forensic Negotiations
Conspiracy and Immorality
The Mind of a Conspirator
The Life of a Conspirator
The Company of a Conspirator
The Question of Stuprum
Conclusion: Republican Politics

Chapter V: Political Conflicts
—After the Exile (57–52 BCE)
Exile and Return
The Appearance of Immorality
The Web of Sexual Immorality
The Excessive and The Immoral
Conclusion: Political Conflicts

Chapter VI: End Game
—The Final Years (44–43 BCE)
The Battle for the Republic
Immorality Revisited
Immorality Portrayed
Immorality Displayed
The Logic of Immoral Life
Immorality as Political Argument
The Threat of Immorality

Conclusions: Making Enemies
The Meaning of Immorality
The Immorality Argument—Improbitatem coarguo
A Web of Immorality—Praeterea vitiis
The Logic of Immorality

Index of Subjects
Index of Names
Index Locorum



Source : Lund University


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