S. Kendall, The Struggle for Roman Citizenship. Romans, Allies, and the Wars of 91–77 BCE

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Seth Kendall, The Struggle for Roman Citizenship. Romans, Allies, and the Wars of 91–77 BCE, Piscataway, NJ, 2013.

Éditeur : Gorgias Press
Collection : Gorgias Studies in Classical and Late Antiquity 2
958 pages
ISBN : 978-1-61143-487-3
$150.00

Between 91 and 77 BCE a series of wars were fought in Italy which left the Roman commonwealth in shambles and ultimately brought about its collapse. Traditionally, studies of these conflicts – and their leaders – have tended to focus on events and individuals separately, although there is a thread which binds them all together: all of these wars in some way involved efforts on the part of Rome's non-citizen Italian Allies first to obtain the rights of Roman citizenship, and then to enhance and preserve those rights once acquired. By re-examining the turbulent decade of the 80s BCE from the perspective of the Italians, their struggle for the citizenship, and the Roman reaction to it, there emerges a greater understanding of a period which otherwise appears to be a disjointed collection of random, violent episodes.

This volume attempts to provide such a survey. It first investigates the nature of the problem by ascertaining why it is the Italian Allies wanted the citizenship. Next, it narrates how Rome's reluctance to give it led to a war so devastating that Rome extended a form of partial citizenship to secure peace. The Allies were not content with this concession for long, however, and their dissatisfaction was used by Roman politicians to further their own ends. Such use is also examined, as is the violence which resulted from it. Finally, it will explore how this violence culminated in a full-fledged civil war, one on whose battlefields the Italians played a large part and which shook – and eventually shook apart – the foundations of the Roman Republic.


Table of Contents
Table of Contents (page 7)
Acknowledgements (page 11)
Introduction (page 15)
Chapter 1: The Nature of the Evidence (page 43)
1. The Turbulent Years of 91…77 BCE (page 43)
2. The Histories Never Composed (page 47)
3. The Histories That Are Lost (page 50)
4. The Histories That Are Incomplete: Diodorus (page 54)
5. The Histories That Are Incomplete: Livy and What Remains of Him (page 57)
6. Appian of Alexandria (page 69)
7. Cassius Dio (page 75)
8. Other Sources: Biography, Exempla, Geography (page 76)
9. The Sources: A Summary (page 80)
Chapter 2: Causes of Italian Desires for the Roman Citizenship (page 83)
1. Allied Desires for the Civitas„the Evidence (page 83)
2. The Nature of Italian Alliances With Rome (page 90)
3. The Drawbacks of Allied Foedera: Costs of Military Service (page 102)
4. The Drawbacks of Allied Foedera: Treatment of Allied Soldiers (page 123)
5. Merchants, Contractors, and Overseas Venture (page 133)
6. Romans and Allies in Italy (page 140)
7. Citizenship as Redress of Grievances (page 148)
8. Dissatisfaction With Rome and the Road to War (page 152)
Chapter 3: The Sparks to Light the Flame (page 153)
1. The Question of When: Why 91? (page 153)
2. Tiberius Gracchus and the Ager Publicus (page 156)
3. The Year 125: Fulvius Flaccus, Fregellae, and the Lessons Learned (page 180)
4. Caius Gracchus (page 195)
5. An Uneasy Quiet and the Strange Career of M. Livius Drusus (page 214)
6. War (page 234)
Chapter 4: The Ignition of Hostilities (page 237)
1. Secessio (page 237)
2. The Chronology of Allied Actions (page 247)
3. Asculum and the End of 91 (page 255)
4. The Winter of 91„Allied Activity and Its Meaning (page 268)
5. The Roman Rejection and Their Decision for War (page 283)
6. The Aims of the Allies Before Asculum and the Changes in Tactics for the Sping (page 298)
Chapter 5: War in Earnest, 90 BCE (page 301)
1. The Allied Army At the Beginning of 90 BCE: Commanders and Strategies (page 301)
2. The Southern Theater (page 304)
3. The Northern Theater (page 322)
4. Fighting in Other Areas: The Sea, Etruria, and Umbria (page 342)
5. Roman Vulnerabilities and the Steps Taken to Correct Them (page 354)
6. The Downhill Slope from the Summit: The End of 90 and the Beginning of 89 (page 366)
Chapter 6: Imperfect Defeat and Incomplete Victory, 89…88 (page 367)
1. The Lex Julia (page 367)
2. The Battles of Asculum and the March Down the Coast (page 380)
3. The War on the Other Side of the Appenines (page 394)
4. The Developments of Winter, and the Spring of 88 (page 411)
5. The End of the War: What Was Reaped and What Was Sewn by the Extension of the Civitas (page 431)
Chapter 7: New Citizens: Marius, Sulpicius, Sulla, and the March on Rome (page 433)
1. The RetirementŽ of C. Marius (page 433)
2. The Strange Career of P. Sulpicius Rufus, the Allies, and the Unlikely Partnership (page 445)
3. The Spectacular Rise of L. Cornelius Sulla (page 456)
4. The Leges Sulpiciae, Sulla, and the Unthinkable Act (page 466)
5. Sulla, the Laws Made, Unmade, and Proposed, and the End of 88 (page 480)
6. The Shadow of Sulla (page 492)
Chapter 8: Progress and the Promises of Cinna (page 493)
1. Cinna, Sulla, and the Beginning of 88 (page 493)
2. Legislative Proposals and Their Results (page 501)
3. Preparations for the Return (page 507)
4. Bellum Octavianum and the Real End of the Allied War (page 515)
5. The Violent Restoration of Cinna and Marius (page 536)
6. The Year 86 and the Problem of Unpaid Balance (page 553)
7. The Year to Come (page 560)
Chapter 9: The Return of Sulla and the Civil War (page 561)
1. An Uneasy Peace (page 561)
2. Dealing With Sulla in the East (page 565)
3. A War of Words and the Raising of Armies (page 577)
4. Civil War, 83 BCE (page 602)
5. Civil War: 82 and 81 (page 624)
6. Sulla Victor (page 644)
Chapter 10: The End of the Struggle„ the Dictatorship of Sulla and Its Consequences (page 647)
1. Rome, Italy, and the Italians and the End of the Civil War (page 647)
2. Proscriptions and Their Consequences (page 649)
3. The Leges Corneliae (page 660)
4. The Italians and Sulla (page 680)
5. The Persistence of the Sullan System (page 687)
Epilogue: Romans Old and New (page 689)
Appendices (page 695)
Appendix A: The Allied Embassy of 91 (page 697)
Appendix B: Rhe Debate Over the Inclusion of the Alliesin the Redistribution of the Ager Publicus by Tiberius Gracchus (page 708)
Appendix C: The Date and Purpose of the Expulsion Law of M. Junius Pennus (page 717)
Appendix D: the Ius Adipiscendi Civitatem Romanum Per Magistratum (page 730)
Appendix E: M. Livius Drusus and the Outbreak of the Allied War (page 736)
Appendix F: Some Questions Concerning the Investigators Sent by Rome into Allied Territory, 91 BCE (page 744)
Appendix G: The Chronology of the Periochae of Livy (page 752)
Appendix H: The Italian Commanders (page 755)
Appendix I: Appian and the Ordering of Events in the First Year of the Allied War (page 764)
Appendix J: Some Notes on Sextus Julius Caesars Defeat of the Paeligni in 90 BCE (page 770)
Appendix K: Marius, Sulla, Messala, and the Battle of the Vineyards, 90 BCE (page 778)
Appendix L: The Nature and Timing of Leges Calpurniae and the Lex Julia (page 789)
Appendix M: The Battles in the Neighborhood of Asculum, Early 89 BCE (page 799)
Appendix N: Cinna, Caecilius Cornutus, and Metellus Pius (page 807)
Appendix O: Some Details About Sullas March Through Southern Italy, 89 BCE (page 822)
Appendix P: The Acquisition of the Civitas by the Rest of the Allies and the Lex Plautia Papiria (page 830)
Appendix Q: The Unusual Consular Candidacy of C. Julius Caesar Vopiscus (page 845)
Appendix R: The Military Career of P. Sulpicius Rufus (page 851)
Appendix S: The Chronology for the End of the Trials Conducted by Cinna and Marius (page 855)
Appendix T: Cinna and his Unredeemed Promise to the Former Allies, 87…86 (page 859)
Appendix U: Ancona and the Sentiments of the Novi Cives (page 862)
Appendix V: Q. Sertorius and the Affair of Suessa Aurunca (page 867)
Bibliography (page 873)
Maps and Figures (page 881)
Index (page 889)

 

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