Guillaume d'Ockham, Traité sur la quantité et Traité sur le corps du Christ. Traduit, introduit et annoté par Magali Roques, Paris, 2014.
Éditeur : Les Belles Lettres
Collection : Sagesses médiévales, 13
LXXXVII - 336 pages
ISBN : 978-2-251-18315-2
Dans les deux traités Sur la quantité et Sur le corps du Christ, Guillaume d'Ockham (1285-1347), philosophe anglais connu pour son nominalisme, répond à des détracteurs qui l'accusent de défendre des thèses métaphysiques incompatibles avec la doctrine catholique de la présence réelle du corps du Christ dans l'hostie lors du sacrement de l'Eucharistie. Le sujet est brûlant : on lui oppose les accusations que Richard de Médiavilla (1249-1302) a portées contre Pierre de Jean Olivi (1248-1298), théologien dissident dont les écrits ont été interdits par l'ordre franciscain.
Dans ces deux écrits théologiques, dont nous proposons la première traduction depuis leur édition critique, Ockham affirme que la thèse réductionniste qu'il soutient, selon laquelle la quantité n'est pas réellement distincte de la substance ou de la qualité, est philosophiquement défendable. Plus encore, sa valeur explicative est plus grande que celle de la thèse de ses adversaires réalistes, au premier rang desquels il place Thomas d'Aquin et Jean Duns Scot. Enfin, il montre que rien, dans le Droit Canon ni dans la Bible, ne le contraint à renoncer à sa thèse réductionniste.
Ockham lègue ainsi à la postérité deux traités d'une importance cruciale pour l'histoire des sciences (sa position sur la structure du continu sera discutée jusqu'à la fin du Moyen Âge) et pour l'histoire des théologies de l'Eucharistie (son interprétation de ce sacrement sera à l'origine d'une tradition nominaliste, qui sera représentée jusqu'à Luther).
Magali Roques est docteur en philosophie, post-doctorante à la Chaire de Recherche du Canada en Théorie de la Connaissance et membre associée du Centre d'Études Supérieures de la Renaissance. Ses travaux portent sur la pensée nominaliste du Moyen Âge et de la Renaissance.
Source : Les Belles Lettres
Joseph Pucci, Augustine's Virgilian Retreat. Reading the ‘Auctores' at Cassiciacum, Turnhout, 2014.
Éditeur : Brepols
Collection : Studies and Texts, 187
ISBN : 978-0-88844-187-4
Augustine's Virgilian Retreat historicizes Augustine's habit of turning to ancient diction through quotation. At Cassiciacum, where the goal was the development of a disciplina christiana, both pedagogy and philosophy support the articulation of a three-pronged method by which the pagan auctores represented by Virgil might be made safe for Christianity. This method is put forth in the Contra Academicos, practiced in the De beata vita, further developed in the De ordine, and defended in the Soliloquia. In the De doctrina Christiana, finally, the specifically bipolar notion of language put forth in the Soliloquia is applied to scripture and developed as a practice beholden to a charitable reader. But there is nothing to separate the reading of Virgil pursued at Cassiciacum from Augustine's charitable reading of scripture, and the more fully developed readerly model articulated in the De doctrina Christiana makes possible a recuperative reading of the Confessiones, where quotations to the auctores have been seen to be ornandi causa. On the contrary, the work pursued at Cassiciacum makes it clear that, far from disdaining or rejecting his ancient inheritance, Augustine made his first task at Cassiciacum the articulation of a method by which the auctores might be made safe for Christianity, a method that he applies in many of his works in the years leading up to the Confessiones.
Source : Brepols
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Janet Elaine Rutherford (éd.), The beauty of God's presence in the Fathers of the Church. The proceedings of the eighth International Patristic Conference, Maynooth, 2012, Dublin, 2014.
Éditeur : Four Courts Press
ISBN : 978-1-84682-529-3
This book, the proceedings of the eighth international patristic conference of St Patrick's College Maynooth, contains fifteen essays by Catholic, Orthodox and Anglican scholars from Russia, Finland, Greece, Poland, Spain, Wales and Ireland, on every aspect of divine beauty. God is Beauty, and thus the source of all beauty. The volume considers the beauty of Christ as the image of the Father, the beauty of human beings who are made in that image, and the beauty of Christ-like lives. The essays span Christian history, from the Bible to the present day, demonstrating once again the enduring relevance of the Church Fathers in every generation.
Eliezer Gonzalez, The Fate of the Dead in Early Third Century North African Christianity. The Passion of Perpetua and Felicitas and Tertullian, Tübingen, 2014.
Éditeur : Mohr Siebeck
Collection : Studien und Texte zu Antike und Christentum, 83
ISBN : 978-3-16-152944-3
The ideology and imagery in the Passion of Perpetua are mediated heavily by traditional Graeco-Roman culture; in particular, by traditional notions of the afterlife and of the ascent of the soul. This context for understanding the Passion of Perpetua aligns well with the available material evidence, and with the writings of Tertullian, with whose ideology the text of Perpetua is in an implicit polemical dialogue.
Eliezer Gonzalez analyzes how the Passion of Perpetua provides us with early literary evidence of an environment in which the Graeco-Roman and Christian cults of the dead, including the cults of the martyrs and saints, appear to be very much aligned. He also shows that the text of the Passion of Perpetua and the writings of Tertullian provide insights into an early stage in the polemic between these two conceptualisations of the afterlife of the righteous.
Source : Mohr Siebeck
David van Dusen, The Space of Time. A Sensualist Interpretation of Time in Augustine, Confessions X to XII, Leyde, 2014.
Éditeur : Brill
Collection : Supplements to the Study of Time, 6
ISBN : 978-90-04-26686-5
From Robert Grosseteste to Jean-François Lyotard, Augustine's suggestion that time is a “dilation of the soul” (distentio animi) has been taken up as a seminal and controversial time-concept, yet in The Space of Time, David van Dusen argues that this ‘dilation' has been fundamentally misinterpreted.
Time in Confessions XI is a dilation of the senses—in beasts, as in humans. And Augustine's time-concept in Confessions XI is not Platonic—but in schematic terms, Epicurean.
Identifying new influences on the Confessions—from Aristoxenus to Lucretius—while keeping Augustine's phenomenological interpreters in view, The Space of Time is a path-breaking work on Confessions X to XII and a ranging contribution to the history of the concept of time.
Source : Brill
Mark Kauntze, Authority and Imitation A Study of the Cosmographia of Bernard Silvestris, Leyde, 2014.
Éditeur : Brill
Collection : Mittellateinische Studien und Texte, 47
ISBN : 978-90-04-25691-0
The Cosmographia is one of the most inventive and enigmatic works of medieval literature. Mark Kauntze argues that this allegory of creation is best understood as a product of the vibrant intellectual culture of twelfth-century France. Bernard Silvestris established the authority of his treatise by imitating those ancient philosophers and poets who were assiduously studied in the contemporary schools. But he also revised and updated them, to develop a compelling intervention into twelfth-century debates about man's place in nature and the relationship between theology and natural science. Using a wealth of manuscript evidence, Kauntze reconstructs the school context in which Bernard worked, and shows how the Cosmographia itself became an object of scholarly annotation and imitation in the later Middle Ages.
Source : Brill
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Tristan Power et Roy K. Gibson (éd.), Suetonius the Biographer. Studies in Roman Lives, Oxford, 2014.
Éditeur : Oxford University Press
ISBN : 978-0-19-969710-6
The biographer Suetonius is one of the most fascinating writers of ancient Rome, but he is rarely afforded serious critical attention. This volume of new essays focuses on the various aspects of Suetonius' work, from his lost biographical writing on Roman courtesans to his imperial portraits of the Caesars.
Beginning with an introduction that assesses the originality of Suetonius as a writer and situates the essays within the context of debates and controversies over his biographical form, the collection addresses the issues surrounding his style, themes, and early influence on literature in three parts. The first part discusses formal features of Suetonian biography, such as his literary techniques, manners of citation and quotation, and devices of allusion and closure. The middle section is devoted to readings of the individual Lives, treating several topics - from Suetonius' decision to begin his collection with Julius Caesar, to fictional elements in his death scene of the emperor Caligula, and to the theme of solitude in his Life of Domitian. The last part examines the ways in which Suetonius transgresses the boundaries of ancient biography by looking at his influence on epistolographers, antiquarians, commentators, and later biographers.
This volume is essential reading for anyone who wants to know why Suetonius' Lives are such a unique and powerful medium for the stories of ancient Rome, and how they became the primary model for later biography.